Aims | The Child | Task of teaching | First steps to integration
- Child   development   and learning
- Piaget
- Vigotsky
- Erikson
- Self-  regulated   learning
- In closing
- References

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The child: psychological and pedagogical considerations


In closing


Children perceive and understand the world in a different way from adults and children also differ one from another. Children are not mere recipients of their environment, but they influence what goes on within their worlds and are active in making the environment what it is. It is important to realize too that children do not represent an homogeneous group. Within the overarching phase of childhood there exists a multitude of differences - differences which can be a result of age, gender, ethnicity and culture, education, social class, upbringing and so on. So not only children are different but there is an underlying knowledge about the child from a number of perspectives. This includes knowledge of theories of emotion and cognition, of learning and personality, of physical growth and development, and of children’s relationships. It is also important to be aware of the gender theme, including, for instance, a knowledge of some well-known authors involved in this subject development, such as: - Anne-Marie Rocheblave-Spenlé (social psychologist) who used the concepts of masculine and feminine papers (in the context of Social Psychology) and who was the precursor of the inclusion of the Differential Psychology of the Sexes subject, in all Social Psychology handbooks; - John Money and Robert Stoller who, within the framework of Developmental Psychology, worked out the concept of core gender identity; - René Zazzo who states: «To me, at least in the perspective in which I situated myself (study of the adaptation to the modalities of kindergarten), there were no children, but boys and girls» (Acioly-Regnier, N et all, 2001).


It is important to recognize that we need a teacher for early childhood who believes that: a) teaching is child-centred rather than curriculum-focused or skill-focused; b) teaching is cognizant of and responsive to the ever-growing knowledge pool in the curriculum areas; c) teaching occurs in individualized (apprenticeship) and small-group situations; d) teaching allows for diverse cultures and unique learning styles; e) attention must be paid to gender in the learning process. This is particularly relevant because the transmission of gender stereotypes is much more subtle in the school than in the family or in the peer group; it can occur through factors like the teachers’ differential attitudes and interactions, or the working out of  group strategies, or through the images of boys and girls in the school textbooks and materials or in the school system.


Specialised training and skills are essential for the teaching of young children, and these must be considered as two ensembles that differ from one another.