EDUCATION IN PRIMARY EDUCATION IN THE NETHERLANDS;
the state of the art 2003
will describe the state of the art of technical education as a subject in primary
education in the Netherlands. As far as technical education is concerned we
can just say, it has started. And with this statement we say that there are
a lot of good initiatives, structured initiatives with support of many
participants in this area like the Ministry of Education, companies,
publishers, schools for primary education and teacher training colleges; all
organise din networks all over the country. So, there is a basis.
these initiatives concentrate on the upper grades of primary education. So
far incidentally there are initiatives for younger children, but not
is another however. This refers to gender. When we look at the activities
then many are yet concentrating on boys, though initiators are very aware of
this gender problem. They are trying to have their initiatives and activities
equally divided for boys and girls.
after we will start with an introduction to the Dutch education system with
its characteristics related to education in schools for primary education,
this is of importance to understand nowadays and future embedding of
technical education into the education system. After that we think it is
important to explain a little bit more of one of the philosophical ideas with
which Haagse Hogeschool; Department for teacher training is working. This
philosophy is also the basis for our work within the subject of technical
education and how we train our students.
description of the domain of technical education and the aims and learning
lines are put in here to explain more about the way in which the subject is
executed in the Netherlands.
To give a
better idea about the reality of technical education in primary education we
will explain more about supporting organisations and available materials in
order to end with the future and the curriculum in this respect of the
Teacher training college in the Hague. Finally there is a list of literature,
mostly with literature in Dutch.
Dutch school system and the policy on Technical education
Hereafter we will explain somewhat more about the
Dutch education system esp. for those ages, which are of importance for the
Flaschenzug project i.e. age 0-12.
We start with a long quote from the Ministry of
Education about the official school system. After that there is a short
introduction to the voluntary education system before the compulsory primary
school age, which is 4 years.
Organisation and administration
2.1. Historical overview
"Schools dispute" and the
The statutory equality of public and private schools
is an important feature of the Dutch education system. This equality of
status, which dates from 1917, was achieved after a long
political dispute, which began in the nineteenth
century and continued into the early part of
The first piece of educational legislation in the
Netherlands, the Elementary Education Act,
was passed in 1801. During the nineteenth and early
twentieth centuries, elementary
schools were divided into public schools funded by
the government and private schools
maintained from private sources. The unequal
treatment of public and private education led
to the "schools dispute", a political
battle to achieve complete equality under the law for both
types of school. Catholics and Protestants wanted
their own schools with a pronounced
Roman Catholic or Protestant stamp but with equal
state funding. The Liberals too wanted
the freedom of education guaranteed by the
Constitution to be reflected in equal financial
treatment of public and private schools. This was
finally achieved in the 1917 Constitution, in
what is known as the "Pacification of
After 1917, the principle of financial equality was
extended to secondary and higher
Education. There are now nearly twice as many
privately run as publicly run schools.
The history of compulsory education
The first legislation making education compulsory
was passed in 1900. It prescribed 6 years
of compulsory education (between the ages of 6 and
12). The Act was repeatedly amended
and eventually replaced by the Compulsory Education
Act 1969, under which it was
compulsory for children to attend school full time
between the ages of 6 and 16. In 1985 the
lower age limit for compulsory schooling was lowered
from six to five. Children must now
attend school full time from the age of five for at
least 12 full school years and, in any event,
until the end of the school year in which they turn
16. In 1971, the Compulsory Education Act was extended to include an
additional period of part-time compulsory education for
young people who have completed their period of
full-time compulsory schooling. Under-18s
must attend school at least one day a week until the
end of the school year in which they
As from 1 August 2002, the school starting age is
due to be lowered to four.
2.2. General principles and legislation
The Constitution and freedom of
One of the key features of the Dutch education
system, guaranteed under article 23 of the
Constitution, is freedom of education, i.e. the
freedom to found schools (freedom of
establishment), to organise the teaching in schools
(freedom of organisation of teaching)
and to determine the principles on which they are
based (freedom of conviction). People
have the right to found schools and to provide
teaching based on religious, ideological or
educational beliefs. As a result there are both
publicly run and privately run schools in the
Publicly run schools are open to all children
regardless of religion or outlook; are generally subject to public law; are
governed by the municipal council or by a public legal entity or foundation
set up by
the council; provide education on behalf of the
Some publicly run schools base their teaching on
specific educational ideas, such as the
Montessori, Jena Plan or Dalton method.
Privately run schools
-are subject to private law and are state-funded
although not set up by the state;
-are governed by the board of the association or
foundation that set them up;
-base their teaching on religious or ideological
beliefs; they include Catholic, Protestant,
Jewish, Muslim, Hindustani and anthroposophy
-can refuse to admit pupils whose parents do not
subscribe to the belief or ideology on
which the school's teaching is based.
Some private schools base their teaching on specific
educational ideas, such as the
Montessori, Jena Plan or Dalton method. Some are
Some 70% of pupils attend privately run schools.
The freedom to organise teaching means that private
schools are free to determine what is
taught and how. This freedom is however limited by
the qualitative standards set by the
Education Culture and Science in educational legislation. These standards,
which apply to both public and private education,
prescribe the subjects to be studied, the
attainment targets or examination syllabuses and the
content of national examinations, the
number of teaching periods per year, the
qualifications which teachers are required to have,
giving parents and pupils a say in school matters,
planning and reporting obligations, and so
The Constitution places public and private schools
on an equal financial footing. This means
that government expenditure on public education must
be matched by spending on private
education. The conditions, which private schools
must satisfy in order to qualify for funding
are laid down by law.
2.3. Compulsory education
The obligation to attend school is laid down in the
Compulsory Education Act 1969. Every
child must attend school full time from the first
school day of the month following its fifth
birthday; in fact, however, nearly all children
attend school from the age of four. Children
must attend school full time for 12 full school
years and, in any event, until the end of the
school year in which they turn 16. Young people are
then required to attend an institution
providing courses for this purpose for two days a
week for another year. Those who have a
practical training contract in a particular sector
of employment attend classes one day a
week on a day release basis and work the rest of the
If a child of compulsory school age is not enrolled
at a school or stays away from school
without permission, the parents can be fined up to
2,250 euros or, in extreme cases, even
sent to prison. Young people aged 12 or over who
stay away from school without permission
can themselves be fined between 2 and 2,250 euros.
An alternative measure is usually
imposed instead. For pupils aged 14 and over who are
experiencing problems with full-time
education, a special programme can be devised
combining general education with some
form of light work that is carried out in
conjunction with their schoolwork. This is intended for
a small group of pupils only, who cannot be helped
in any other way.
The municipal authorities implement the Compulsory
Education Act. The municipal
executive checks that children below school leaving
age who are registered as resident in
the area is enrolled as pupils at an educational
establishment. The municipal authorities
ensure compliance with the Act in both public and
private schools through the school
attendance officer appointed for this purpose. The
Act requires each municipality to have
one sworn attendance officer with specific
responsibility for this matter, although in smaller
local authorities such officials frequently carry
out other duties in addition.
Since 1995 the municipal authorities have been
responsible for registering early school
leavers under the age of 23 and coordinating
regional policy on this matter. In 2001 the
Regional Registration and Coordination (Early School
Leavers) Bill was adopted by
parliament. This bill contains amendments to
educational legislation designed to prevent
and tackle early school leaving in ordinary and
special secondary schools, secondary
vocational education and adult general secondary
education. The municipal authorities will
in future be responsible for ensuring an integrated
approach to the issue of early school
leaving. Schools and colleges will be required to
report all cases up to the age of 23, i.e.
beyond school-leaving age. The main aim is for all
young people to leave school with a
2.4. Structure of the education system and key
There is limited formal educational provision in the
Netherlands for children under four. In
June 2000 the Ministry of Education, Culture and
Science, the Ministry of Health, Welfare
and Sport and the Minister for Urban Policy and
Integration of Minorities published a policy
letter on early childhood education (
). It outlines
government policy and lists concrete
measures. Early childhood education is geared to
children aged 2 to 5 who are at risk of
educational disadvantage. The aim is to partially
integrate this policy with urban policy and
municipal policy on educational disadvantage (see
also § 3.10 under New developments).
Most children start primary school at the age of
four, although law does not require them
to attend school until the age of five. As from 1
August 2002, the school starting age (
) has been lowered to four. 1)
Children leave primary education in general at the
age of about 12 (after eight years of
Within the frame of this education material
referring technical education for young children it is important to note
here, that before compulsory education, there is a structure for the
education of children younger than 4 years.
First there are the day care centres. These centres
just look after children age 0 until 4. Parents bring their children early in
the morning and can take them home again when they want. Sometimes
(especially in bigger cities) they are open until late at night. The staffs
are educated at a certain pedagogical level and know how to deal with
children in this age.
The same centres several times also offer after
school care i.e. when parents are not at home children can go there and will
have a place where they can do their homework or can play together with
adults who keep an eye on them.
Day care centres have an economical basis: parents
can wok or study during the time children is in the centre.
A specific feature in the Netherlands is the
peuterspeelzalen, places where children in the age of 2 4 can stay only
for pedagogical reasons. Each individual child can stay there only for 2 to 3
times a week for some hours. The idea is that children learn to meet other
children and get acquainted to a lot of toys. Furthermore these children
learn to play in structures and in an unstructured way.
In former times these centres stood alone. Nowadays
they are many times combined with the day care centres.
The education structure for the ages 0-4 and the
after school care is paid by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, so not by
the Ministry of education.
The philosophy of the
Dutch education system
When the revised compulsory education act came into
force (1984), several ideas were at the background.
This act brought together the ages of 4-6 and 6/7-12
under one system. It was based on the idea that the gap between playing and
learning was artificial (two separate schools) and that it would be much
better for the continuous development of children that it would be one long
line of development from 4- 12. Children would go from learning while playing
to learning and sometimes playing. The consequence of that was that teachers
had to change their ideas about strategies of learning and that the role of emotion
while learning became very important. At least in theory. After so many years
we must conclude that in several schools the background theory has been
realized, but that in the majority of the 7000 schools fro primary education
in The Netherlands have not been successful or never tried to change their
system. They stacked to the system of: for the ages 4 and 5 it is playing
and after we start the serious work of learning.
Beside the idea of the continuous learning it was at
the same time that Frea Jansen-Vos developed her ideas (basic development
in translation) about good education for young children (age 4- 8).
To characterize Dutch education for young children
and to understand the basis for the principles on which technical education
in The Hague and in the Netherlands is based, we will quote somewhat longer
from a paper of Frea Janssen-Voss. In the paragraph here after we will
explain more (§ 3).
Some essential principles of the theory of basic
children and adults play an active role in developmental processes.
Children learn the best, or have optimal development
chances, when they operate in significant situations and are involved in
Stages in developmental processes show a sequence of
interrelated dominant activities and motivations: material activities,
role-playing and learning activities.
Initiation and involvement are crucial factors in
Emotional freedom is a prerequisite for sound
Young children show large differences in
Principles like this lead to an educational concept,
which we call: development-oriented education
The intention of development-directed education in
general is to improve personality formation; including goals like taking action,
verbal communication, reflection and independence. In short: broad
development. All kinds of necessary knowledge and skills are part of
personality formation: they are no goals in itself.
A second characteristic is the important role of
adults, or teachers; they are playing a very active role in developmental
processes; they provoke development.
And a third core idea is the need of significant
situations, activities and materials; significant for children at one side
and for educational intentions at the other side. Teachers have to
intermediate between both.
A sound development needs some characteristic, which
can be seen as developmental prerequisites, as well as educational goals:
Goals in the area of broad development are long-term
goals; they cannot be reached in course of early childhood education or even
in primary education. The aims show the direction in which we want to
stimulate and guide the childrens development.
These are the main goals:
and working together
and problem solving
►Specific knowledge and skills
Development of young children includes a series of
specific knowledge and skills. They serve broad development, as has been
stressed already. Even though it is possible to mention many detailed
knowledge and skills, we again prefer not to do so. Instead we point at
observation and sorting
and technical education
and printed language
and calculations. 2)
In Belgium Ferre Laevers (University of
his ideas (experience based learning in translation) for the same group of
young children and further and during the same years. For some time they
operated together and later more as opponents. Nowadays there is a large
group of teachers in The Netherlands working with the young children who are
supporting the ideas of Frea Janssen-Vos, while in Belgium people do support
the theory of Ferre Laevers. Though in the same language area they were not
able to convince across the borders.
For a longer time the ideas of Frea Janssen-Vos only
concentrated on the younger children, though she already emphasized in the
earlier mentioned paper development-directed education is a concept which
applies to the whole area of primary education. 3)
It is from some 5 years ago that Dutch primary
education is slowly influenced by the adherers of development-directed
education, that these ideas have to influence also the higher grades of
primary education. During these years some schools for primary education were
re-writing their curriculum based on this theory.
It is during the last few years that the protestant
Free University of Amsterdam has shown interest in the concept and is busy
to work on the scientific side of it.
Furthermore a foundation has been established (Academy for
development-oriented education) to disseminate the (applied) theory and the
ideas in schools and teacher training colleges like the one of Haagse
At the same time (already some 15 years) for higher
grades (esp. in the areas of biology and technical education) subject
methodologists had developed a practice oriented theory: discovery learning.
This methodology is widespread in The Netherlands
and esp. linked to the above-mentioned subjects.
Good education for young children; Development-oriented Education (OGO)
Hogeschool, department for teacher education has chosen for
development-oriented education. It is an approach in which people have
an idea about good education for young children. It is important to pay
attention to that, because it is the philosophy of Haagse Hogeschool,
department for teacher education and technical education, as a subject will
be embedded within the curriculum with this philosophy.
after we will give a short explanation of the beginning of the ideas, the
characteristics and the aims of development-oriented Education for
education; a third road
to the tradition there are two approaches of education for young children
(age 4-6) in the Netherlands: a method based approach and a child based
method based approach focuses on the future possibilities of children. The
teacher is preparing is preparing learning environments, adapted to the
individual child in order to achieve pre-fixed goals. The risk of this method
is that the child itself is subordinated to pre-fixed programs and
consequently will not be motivated enough anymore.
The child-based approach is focusing upon the
present possibilities of children. Along this concept children need
especially play activities, which meet their interest and every-day life.
Based on observations the teacher strong learning environments. This has the
risk that education is becoming more of following the child and it is in this
way that education relies on the power of the self-development of children.
It is possible that by these children are missing chances to get the right
support at the right time. (Janssen-Vos, F.,
Basisontwikkeling in de onderbouw, (Assen) 1997)
education is integrating the advantages of both approaches. It is for
this that we speak of a third road. It is not a method but an educational
Education is for teachers a curriculum strategy, which is providing
teachers with a lot of instruments to link as close as possible to the
capacities of children.
rule when organising the curriculum (form early years to older ages) is that
all new learning processes are embedded in meaningful wide scoped
activities (van Oers, B., 1998, Magazine De Vernieuwing).
3.3. Inspiration sources for development-oriented
preschool education (EGO; Prof. F. Laevers). He points out that social
welfare and involvement are of vital importance for good education. A healthy
pedagogical climate and rich experiences make that children can concentrate
on what to do.
based education (German Reform movements): The right choice of education
themes (e.g. living, working,
hospital) can connect and produce cohesion between school and the world
development based education (Vygotsky): His theory points out the continuity
in development and education. It is because of this that in The Netherlands
pre-primary educational and primary education are concentrated in one school.
The late psychologist Van Parreren has translated the ideas of Vygotsky for
adaptive education: education that is adapted to the needs of the differences
of children. There are three basic needs of children, which have been met in
education: relation, competence and autonomy, as Stevens is stating.
distinguishes between two levels of development: the actual one (that which a
child is able to do independently) en de zone of the future development (that
which a child will be able to do in future with support
connected the previous with the concept of
imitation (i.e. joining
already existing socio-cultural activities, through which imitation is more
than only steps to go further: children develop their own interpretation of
activities. It is because of this that they learn all kind of new specific
acts in a meaningful conceptualised way. The support they get is helping them
to behave independent.
of the teacher is very important especially as the one who knows more and who
can stimulate and can offer individualized activities.
teacher has a kind of hidden agenda, based on the knowledge of the
development of the children. This knowledge helps to offer the right
activities at the right moment.
relation to technical education this means, that activities should offer a
lot of room for creativity and input of children themselves*. The teacher
should know which activities are fit for this moment and which for the
description of a sequence of activities can be supportive without being put
into a method. Further implications are described in chapter 2.
the ideas of constructivism future knowledge and skills are centralised
around the level and interest of each individual child.
Development is carried out
along activities and leading issues in a certain period of the development of
a child. As known, key activities start with playing activities (age two and
three) and gradually change over to learning activities (age seven and
For young children playing activities are the major
basis for further development and for learning.
The development of the playing activity into a
purposeful learning activity must be seen as a unity without any break by the
is a cohesive process. of physical and psychological elements which are
connected to each other and which influence each other. Beside that they are
linked to the key activities. This means that major development processes (e.g.
communication, speech and mental language) are stimulated by key activities.
Objectives of development-oriented education
circle of development-oriented
education three levels can be identified (see the circles here
basic characteristics are objective and contain at the same time for
development and learning during primary school age and actually for the
entire learning process.
competences form the in between circle are necessary for children to start their
personality development and increasing independency.
A. being active, taking initiatives,
B. communication and language
C. playing and working together
D. discover the world
E. express yourself and designing
D. imagination and creativity
G. understanding symbols, signs and
I. investigation, arguing, and problem
knowledge and skills are different for each age. They are very important, but the learning
of this knowledge and skills is only optimum when the inner circles are complete.
The following areas are distinct.
A. Motor skills
B. Observation and ordering
C. Words and concepts
D Social skills
E. Tools and technical education
G. Quantity and adaptation
H. Written and printed language
development of children is a coherent entity. The objectives described above
cannot be separated and to achieve them it is important to have a cohesive
must be executed in meaningful situations, because then motivation is at its
means that working with themes is highly appreciated. For the choice of the
key activities there are four criteria:
*These must be activities, which are relevant
for children and which motivate them to create an active and high level of
The key activities and motivations of young
children age two and three up to the ages of seven and eight show us the
interest of playing activities, construction activities and purposeful
must be foster the development. This means that they contribute to
development and learning processes which are necessary for development
oriented education, e.g. the development of communication and language, to
express yourself and designing and coping with symbols and meanings.
important for the young ages while the starting learning processes are
taking place during these ages. Starting and functional literacy (reading and
writing) are in this respect of very high importance as are starting numeracy
activities are related to contents and issues from the socio-cultural world
and the world of nature.
must have the feeling they can participate on their own (or with the support
of others) in these activities.
From this there are 5 key
activities, which need to be represented:
Construction and art;
Reading and writing;
way: a practice activity can consist of more than one key activity.
Consequences for technical education
paragraph we paid more than usual attention to development-oriented education.
reason is the important implications for the pedagogical and methodological
concepts for technical education with young children.
So far gender
was not an issue within technical education in the Netherlands. Though in
classrooms teachers noticed fear for technics by girls, their first concern
was to introduce technical education in their school and in their classes.
Furthermore the idea is/was that all children should become curious about
technical phenomena. Technics are seen in a wide perspective as described
here. The consequence of that is that technical education in this respect is
a challenge for all children, whether they are girls or boys.
on this aspect for the Netherlands looks to be restricted to the extended
worldwide PATT research (Pupils Attitudes Towards Technology). ¹)
Netherlands the research was focusing on the ages 10-12. This research also
investigated the attitudes of boys and girls: Boys seem to have a more
positive attitude towards technology than girls. However , there is little
research available to support these assumptions. (p.2) Interesting is that from this research it
also appears that boys AND girls associate technics with making
somethingand here comes the differences: boys concentrate on: transportation
and computers, while girls focus on electrical equipments.
conclusions can hardly been drawn because of the date of research being the
not mean that investigation and research are needed to support the
implementation of technical education nationwide. Results can also support
the implementation of strategies for technical education for young children,
boys and girls e.g. age 4.
be of interest to have students and /or teachers doing already simple work in
this respect like doing structures observations and taking consequences.
de Klerk Wolters, A PATT study among 10 to 12 year-old students in The
Netherlands in Journal of Technology Education,
Recent history of technical education in The Netherlands ¹)
The start of curriculum
development for technical education in The Netherlands was a rather late one.
It was in the 90s that the
National Organisation for Curriculum Development was asked by the Jenaplan foundation (organisation for the
development for Jenaplan education ²) to develop a course for world-orientation
in which in the subject area of technical education making and using
together with other aspects within society were explicitly incorporated.
The way in which this course was
developed (with many practical suggestions and wide) was very much
appreciated elsewhere. In the 90s in several schools people experimented and
got experience how to cope with the subject.
Several Colleges for Teacher
Training offered schools for primary education their so-called technical
education discovery classrooms for use. Others experimented on their own with
parts of technical education education within their schools.
Outside schools some foundations
like Ontdekhoek, Techniek 10 en
Jeugd en Techniek (JeT) had started
From I993 on the Steering Group Techniek Primair
Onderwijs gave new impulses for some four years. Examples are: schools for
primary education could get education packages, publishers developed new materials
for schools. More classrooms for technical education were furnished and
schools for primary education started networks in this area.
From the external organisations
new materials were offered to primary schools. Schools could and can consult
the (via the internet) Vademecum Techniek
1998. In here they will find the
latest materials and all kind of lesson suggestions.
The National Organisation for
Curriculum Development published a lot for the subject technical education.
A list of publications can be found at the end of this Part
For primary education there are
two major publications for technical education courses: Zo
doe je techniek in de basisschool (I997) and the activity book: Maak 't maar! (I997).
Both are concentrating on the
process of technical education and the products of technical education. This
results in a combination of investigation and problem solving activities.
The lesson examples show that the
curriculum needs not to be changed. It shows that several subjects can be
enriched by technical education.
The steering group Techniek
Primair Onderwijs has changed over now into Axis (see also § 9). This
organisation is the beneficiary and responsible for the budget the Ministry
of Education has provided.
¹) It must be
pointed out that in the Netherlands Information and Communication Technology
(ICT) has never been part of technical education . ICT has been developed
as a stand-alone subject. People see both subjects as complete different
areas especially in primary education.
somewhat older investigation (age 12 1 5) year 1985 and 1997/8 between
France, the UK and the Netherlands ¹) confuses still computing and
technical education and concludes e.g. that both sexes are equally interested
and enthusiastic. Isabelle Correard,
Twelve years of technology education in France, England and the Netherlands :
how do pupils perceive the subject.
²) Jenaplan education is a
pedagogical way of teaching and educating children in The Netherlands. The
movement is one of the five pedagogical movements in the Netherlands, which
developed ideas about education. It is analogue Montessori education and
Montessori schools, though with a different system. The plan for this
education was developed at the University of Jena in the city of Jena (Germany)
by Dr. Peter Petersen during the years 1923-1924. Nowadays there are some 220
Jenaplan schools in Holland of which some 10 are schools for secondary
Domain description of technical education in Primary education
5.1. Core aims Technical
the second version of the core aims for Primary education came into force.
The core aims are the aims, which have to be achieved by children at the end
of primary education (age 12). As from then on Technical education is one of
the major subjects.
are able to design solutions and use these when technical problems are there.
They will use some basic technical understandings of which the following are
at least part of:
of construction, (use of materials, firmness, connections), principles of
movement and principles of transmission (lever, pulley, gear-wheal)
are able to investigate some technical products from within their own
experiences at their level. They can do that according to functionality, use
of materials and design. Furthermore they can explain how it works. The
products are examples from the areas of construction, transportation,
communication and production.
Guidelines are produced for the
education itself (Maak t maar!, SLO,
Bouwmeester, T. e.a. Enschede 1997). as for the curriculum development
(curriculum plan: Zo doe je techniek in de basisschool, SLO, Enschede
the tests were designed and made ready (Citogroep, Arnhem 2002.)
5.2. A description of the
subject area of technical education.
For the curriculum
a narrow description is used:
education is an area of activities of people (in which only materialized
products and processes play a role) based on the grouping of knowledge and
capabilities, through which they provide in means to adapt the environment to
the needs of themselves as of the social group. This also means that they are
responsible for their environment (Ploegmakers 1986)
figure you will see back the definition as a model (Ploegmakers et al., 1994)
(1986) is mentioning 5 characteristics of technical education:
Technical education is work of human beings
technical education it is always about a process of designing, making and
3. Three pillars of technical
education are: matter, energy and information.
Technical education and science are influencing each other reciprocally.
Technical education and society are influencing each other reciprocally.
2 and 3
can be shown in a technical circles, see figure
technical education can also be discriminated from arts and sciences.
The general aim of
technical education in primary education is described as follows:
The education of Technical
education concentrates on those aspects of technical education, which are of
for a good personal
development of children in the age of 4 12, including getting a good idea
of what technical education can be. With this children learn to produce
technical education and to work practically. They obtain knowledge and get
understanding of how technical products were realized. Children learn to cope
with technical products and the opportunity to discover their own possibilities
and interests. Technical education need to be attractive and useful for all
two domains: A en B. These run parallel to the core aims. Se
A: self producing of technical education (designing, making, using)
B: investigation of technical education
circular process: after the phase of using, the realized product is
improved. Each time the process is concentrating on the next phase.
for one of the steps. Further investigation for the next step.
the subject of technical education 4 technical areas or systems can be
identified.(Todd, McCrory & Todd, 1986; Dugger, 1993):
construction, e.g.. bridges,
transportation, e.g. vehicles, transportation via tubes
communication, e.g. computer, fax, alarm signal
production, e.g.. articles of consumption, clothes, utensils
to knowledge and understandings technical principles are often divided
like (Hutchinson en Karsnitz, 1994):
Structures: construction- en connection principles, like balance, firmness,
power, and connections
mechanics: movement- and transition principles, like lever, slope, wheels,
axes, gear wheel, and pulley. screw
electricity/electronics: use and adaptations of electric stream circles and
electronics, like conductors, insulators, sensors, switches, illumination,
noise, electro engines, changing of ways of energy.
pneumatics/hydraulics: transition of movements via air or liquids; cylinders,
Domain description of technical education for primary education (by the
national test institute)
test institute identifies in her development of domains competences for
children and contents for technical education for primary education, in order
to develop aims.
and creativity; design of a product
making of the product
analysing and evaluating the product
and characteristics of materials
and technical principles
work principles in the domain description are pointed as basic understandings:
- With profiles strong and yet
light constructions can be made.
- Constructions become stronger
when supported by triangles, bows and by building in contact and by
making the basis wider than the top.
- By connections parts are connected
to a bigger entity. There are connections with which the parts can
easily be disconnected and yet permanent.
- (Gear)wheels and levers
provide in the transition of a movement or a power from one part of a
machine to another.
- A transition can enlarge the
power, diminish it or change the direction. It can speed up a movement,
slow down or change of direction.
- A steering control system
makes it possible to have a machine been working without the
interference of human beings.
transmittance of energy.
- Fuel, streaming water, wind
and sun are sources of energy. Human beings use these sources for the generation of several
ways/shapes of energy: movement, light, heat and electric energy. These
shapes of energy can be transformed into each other.
- Electric energy is aroused in
electricity factories. Accumulator and batteries also make energy
deliver electric energy.
- If an energy source is
connected to an electric circuit an electric stream is starting to run.
The higher the pressure the more electric energy there is.
for each age.
Netherlands mostly we divide the ages in three groups during the primary
youngest (4 tot 6/7 jaar)
ages (7-9/10 year)
ages (10-12/13 year)
sufficient to develop a learning line. A learning line is
stadium in the development of a child has its own characteristics. The
consequences for technical education are in general:
in these ages experience technical objects as entities, with which you can
play. They have no idea how something has been made end for what purpose.
Their world of fantasys all kind of objects gets a different task. Technical
problems are put into a story or in the context of the environment. While
working the teacher is steering the design tasks via questions and influences
in that way the order of activities
age it is already possible to have children confronted with construction
problems. They can make drawings of solutions. Via research with technical
toys they discover what a pulley is, a gear wheel and so on. They can combine
partial solutions. Children recognize technical aspects in their
are able to transfer questions form a situation into another/ a new one.
able to do tasks autonomously with use of resources. They are able to make
work drawings. They are able to make connections between needs and product.
They can finds out how this problem was solved in the past. They can find out
the principles, which are used in this product. They recognize the
transitions of energy.
able to execute a working schedule step by step.
5.5. Learning lines for the subject
tehnique (1.4 Leerlijn techniek voor de basisschool)
(uit: Techniek in het primair onderwijs
zoals het kan, SLO, 19
general objective for technical education in primary education is known:
content and activities are chosen form the areas of problem solving in
technical education and research on products
the 2 domains of technical education.
paragraph we will describe these two domains and the way in which teachers
can cope with this and organise activities
after some descriptions of lessons will be presented. Questions and tasks are
proposed to show what technical education can be and how children get more
understanding of and get skilled in the process of designing, making and
Domain A: Making technical
lessons belonging to this domain one concentrates first on the producing of
solve all kind of technical problems. They are meeting with the process of
designing, making and using.
result is a product, e.g. a car for transportation, a bridge, a tower (construction,
a simple alarm system (communication) or a useful bin (production).
depends on age, level of development, kind of school education, at what level
children are meeting the stages of designing, using and making.
youngest children (age 4, 5 and 6/7) the teacher will just concentrate on
talking about a problem and an indication for a solution. Together with the children the problem is
analysed and several children will get the opportunity to talk about a
possible solution. After that the children are going to make the solution of
which they thought of and in the evaluation teacher and children will talk
about several solutions, which they see in practice.
the ages 7, 8, 9 and 10 problems are solved either as a group or in smaller
groups. There is one difference: the teacher will spend more time on the
by a sketch and short instructions children make their own design. They
explain that to their classmates and /or the teacher and will start.
explaining there is extra attention for:
the design OK? Or have things to be changed?
of alls steps? What was the order of the steps?
the materials and tools fitting?
did you connect all pieces?
For the upper
grades (ages 11 and 12) so far the phases are not ready and people are
working on that. At this moment they pay attention to:
program of demands:
+ constructing the lift you are supposed to
use construction materials like Lego, Fischer or Meccano;
+ In the construction children have to put in
a moving principle (in the lift pulleys must be used);
+ Children learn to use materials based on
characteristics of the material;
+ the design must be clear described and
understandable for other people (they must be able to make a copy)
steps to be made by teacher and children are now described. During the use (=
the evaluation) it is tested if the program of demands has been put in. Have
they seen their own solution earlier in a different product? Which solution
is also possible?
Domain B: Research on
this domain children understand in products, which they meet in daily life.
supposed to do research on products. This research will also arouse
reflections on the processes, which are underlying designing and making.
Moreover children learn to use technical education in a safe and proper way.
of daily life products are:
toys like a crane;
like a pincher, boxes, spoons, brushes, kitchen utensils;
of transport like a bicycle, pneumatic post, playing cars;
products like soap and tooth brush;
electronic circuits: the use of sensors;
of communication like an alarm installation, a telephone, a computer;
constructions: bridges, locks and so on.
this kind of research it is important that children depending on their age,
level of development, primary education or school for special needs - ask
questions to the material
the underlying processes.
children (age 4-8) the questioning will be restricted to:
do you use this article and for what (e.g. a brush)?
is made of; did you ever see another brush?
surprises you looking at this brush?; why this shape?
parts can you identify?
questions about parts, use, functions, materials and shape for the ages of
7-10 there is also attention for the manufacturing in order to get this
product, for solid and flexible connections (how is this moving);
there is attention for the usefulness of the article (this is a wooden
pincher: is it possible to use another article for this function?). If it is
out of order would you repair this or do you throw it away? What kind of
waste is this? (environment education).
upper grades questionnaires are ready (= printed).
an example of such a questionnaire:
about the design:
is the function of it?
was it made like it is made/
Which demands are applicable for this design?
4. Which materials are
Which constructions and moving principles have been used?
6. What kind of energy resource has been
about the making:
- Of what parts the product
- What connections are used?
- What kind of adaptations of
the materials has been used?
- What kind of materials and
tools has been used?
- Can we make a copy in order
to understand how it works?
about the use:
- A show of the use of the
- Is it a useful product? Is
there need for it? Are there environmental objections and what did
people use in the past and what is people using in other parts of the
- What is a proper way to
destroy the product, what materials can be recycled and what to do with
the waste itself?
Organisations introducing technical education inside and outside schools
organisations develop activities for children inside and outside schools.
In this paragraph
you will find the state of the art of the providers in the area of technical
education, with a short description and an internet link.
7.1 The discovery place
2011 PP Haarlem
foundation discovery place started in Haarlem and has establishments
in Amsterdam, Heemskerk, Landsmeer, Den Helder en Beverwijk.
Wednesday afternoon, when Dutch schools are closed, a room (e.g. a physical
education room) is changed over into a workshop with all kind of corners
where children can make a piece of technical work and play with it. Examples
of this are: boots of foam, solder, flying with paper, making construction
materials and use it, burglary alarm, set bricks, etc. Children can make use
of simple visual instruction forms. Part of these examples is published in
Techniek, de eerste stap door Harry Valkenier. These are materials, which
are tested extendedly, are not difficult and extremely inviting. Can easy be
used in primary school age.
Low costs because of volunteers helping. E.g. for children one
afternoon including everything: 2,50.
1.7.2 The discovery corner
Tel: 010 - 4143103
Tel: 073 - 6215335
Campus 2 - 6
Tel: 038 - 4699975
The discovery corner is for boys and girls age 4 to 14 jaar! It is
learning by doing: discovering how things are working, how technical
constructions are working. All materials look very simple. When constructed
it was only of importance that children could play as much as they want with
it. In The Netherlands it is not so common that children can start themselves
to investigate and execute. Most of the principles of the Science approach
can be found back in this. From the educational point of view it is
interesting to see how a broad age range like 4 - 14 all are playing at their
own level with the same materials and are really interested from the very
first moment until the end.
Children are free to design and to make things in the discovery
corners as they learn at the same time several skills. The activities are
comparable to those from the discovery place.
7.2 NEMO, science and technical education
NEMO, discoveries voyage from fantasy
Oosterdok 2 (next to Amsterdam Central Station)
1011 VX Amsterdam
P.O box 421
1000 AK Amsterdam
tel. 0900 - 91 91 100 ( 0,35)
fax 020 5313535
heart of Amsterdam the NEMO museum is located. It the shape is of a big
vessel. Four floors with all kind of themes, like: brains and the internet,
microscopes, chemical processes and distribution, magic of metal, water
cleaning, flying, chain reactions and a lot of self activitys.
Technical education museum Delft
2611 RV Delft
The technical education museum is
connected to the University of Technics in Delft. They take charge of the heritage
of the research and education materials of the old School of higher
technology and the nowadays-existing University (TU).
Throughout the year there are changing
exhibitions, workshops and lectures for education or separately for children.
Annually the technical education project is organised for schools for primary
education by teachers and students of
Hogeschool Domstad (Domstad Schoorl for Higher Education)
De Spelerij De Uitvinderij
(The play and invention garden)
fax: 0313 450447
De Spelerij, the most wonderful play and discovery
place of The Netherlands
Is a park full of technical playing instruments. In
the wood there are fanatsic objects, mostly made of usd materials.
They contain all kind of mechanisms which can be
started to move by children; examples: a self service crane, a fountain, boats, step vehicles and so on. From each
instrument can be seen how the mechanism is working.
In the park there is The invention: a workshop
where children and their parents can make things themselves and start
activities like bowing plastic, sawing images and work with metal. While
playing children learn to know technical education.
For schools there are full day programmes.
BTA: Bedrijfs Tak Adviesproject, Metaal- en Elektrotechnische Bedrijven
(BTA; Organisation for the Branch of Industry of
Metal and Electro Technics)
2260 AK Leidschendam
About 50 pensioners from this brach of
industry are guest teachers at schools for primary education for free
throughout the country. They serve annually some 90.000 pupils. I
In each guest lesson there are 13 activity tasks
with beatiful professional materials. Examples: measuring with a marking
gauge or connecting electricity in a show house. Especially by the
challenging materials children get excited
about technical education.
For teacher training colleges they do have separate
lessons and materials.
7.6 Technika 10
Technika 10 Nederland
3561 LG Utrecht
Technical education is for
everybody! The best proof for this statement is the blooming of the Technika
10 Nederland clubs.
Technika 10 Nederland has been established in 1986 with the aim to have
girls met with technical education in a non-intentional way, to stimulate
them to develop technical education skills. Nowadays Technika10 Nederland
has fully developed and is a network organisation with some 300 Technika 10
locations all over the country and makes annually contact with some 10.000
girls age 8 15 and with a non-Dutch ethnic background.
This happens by organising technical education clubs and technical education
courses. All courses are under responsibility of women who at same time are
role models for the girls.
Stichting Kindermusea Zo&Zo
(Foundation for childrens museums Zo&Zo)
(museums for and of
2517 VV Den Haag
contactperson: Rita Baptiste
De museums of
Zo&Zo are made by children themselves under supervision of adults.
Once made the museums are travelling along schools for primary education.
Children (age 8-12 ) are the museum employee doing the tours for other
chidlren of the school.
In the museums each time there is a uniqe
combination of technical education ,
creativity and art.
Examples of musea are:
Flying with a strange bird: kinetic museum, chain
Zo&Zo boils over: old and new kitschens.
cooking, kitchen chemistry
Zo&Zo is building a robot: stream circles,
pneumatics, sensors, fantasy animals
Standard materials for technical education (age 4-12)
moment more and more education publishers have found out that this is a
market for them, though they are careful. As the position of the internet in
Dutch education has an increasing role, teachers are careful to use the web
as their main resource in relation to technical education. The traditional
teacher in the Netherlands is very much pleased by a ready-to-use method (a
kind of plug and play).
investigation learns that for the ages below 8 there are hardly any standard
materials. Teachers have to make that for themselves, which might be a good
- First there is the important
and already longer existing resource book: Zo doe je techniek.
Beginning of the 90s. Re-edited in 1997
- For young children age 4 6/7
there is construction material, like wooden blocks and materials with
which the children can build. .
- Sometimes Education Televsion
pays attention to technical education.
- Incidentally a parent is invited
to tell something about his/her job which is in the area of technical
- Some museums (NINT; Amsterdam) for technical
education have also education packages (with ready-to-use lessons).
- Then there is of course in
all kind of languages the materials from LEGO-Dacta (see the philosophy
page her after. They do have a page for the pres-school children,
which really give not any information.
As can be
noticed, we have left out ICT. Though for Americans Technical education IS
ICT, we see this as a separate education domain, which has strong connections
to technical education, but in essence is not identical.
there is an important website of the Ministry of Education called Kennisnet
(Knowledge net) is used more and more by schools and organisations related to
education. This page is divided in two parts. One part is about background
information e.g. on a digital technical education classroom, about tools,
about inventions and so on. The other part has a lot of links to education
materials: 13 science tests, 41 working sheets for children (can also be used
until the age of 6) also, explanations of machines, suggestions for lessons
for teachers (e.g. about levers, about a bicycle and so on.
general there are not so many materials for children esp. the younger
children, it is important that teachers AND student teachers can develop
their own materials.
Hogeschool, Department for teacher training for primary education there are
some approaches which are used as the theoretical basis for the design and
development of materials. These approaches are: the storyboard approach, the
development-oriented approach (see § 1.0 and 1.1.1.) and the self-discovery
to these principles students develop materials and indirect support children
to work in the same way (annual activity in the Central Hall as part of a
regional technical education activity and promotion).
Development projects AXIS and VTB
for a longer time the Ministry of Education and education organisations were
worrying about the state of the art of technics esp. in primary education,
knowing how the population at the Teacher training colleges had changed over
the years and along with that how the popularity of technical education had
beginning of the 90s there was a national initiative to support
teacher-training colleges, which intend to start a technical education
classroom. Colleges were supplied with lists on which they could cross which
supplies they would like to have. There was a minimum. It was in this way
that also Haagse Hogeschool PABO could start in their new with such a
initiatives were taken and one came from AXIS. Axis is, what they
describe in their own words:
years promotional campaigns have been used in an attempt to encourage more
young people to consider technical studies and careers, but with only limited
success. Axis Platform for Science and Technology in the Netherlands was
given the task of developing a structural and
unorthodox approach over a period of five years
(1999-2004). Founded by
representatives of the business community, the education sector and the government, it has a
broad spread commitment
to interest more young people in choosing educational paths in science or
technical studies and stimulate them to pursue a career in technology.
Primary approach: to get all parties involved to jointly work
on a solution for this challenging issue.
Main activities: projects and research on the subject of
science and technology (studies and careers).
To gain a better insight in the underlying causes of this lack of interest
amongst young people in opting science and technology, several studies have
already been conducted which provided several valuable insights.
With the insights generated from
the research results, Axis has initiated projects to alter the image that
sciences, technical studies and professions currently have. At the same time
plans are being made and implemented to improve the content of the studies
themselves. To date Axis is co-financing over seventy projects, initiated by
both schools and companies. Most of these projects are unorthodox and new in
that they manage to work on creative solutions not traditionally applied in
the past. Furthermore the projects focus on working practical and theoretical
chain, from kindergarten through to university level.
Axis has set up an on line database with "good practices" from
educational institutes and companies that can provide examples for solving
the challenging technology/science issue. Our Research and Evaluation-team
also conducts research abroad, hoping to encounter interesting initiatives
from which we could learn or which could be implemented in The Netherlands as
The information in the database is unfortunately written in Dutch. If you
require more information about it's content, please do not hesitate to
contact Axis: tel.0031 15 219 14 61 or firstname.lastname@example.org
be noticed AXIS does want to have an unorthodox approach. What they mean is
Chain Approach Model: Which crucial factors have to be tackled, and in
what way, to contribute to solving the low interest of youngsters for the
technical and science field?
The segments show in
what areas policies of the government, schools and companies can be changed
for the better. At the same time it shows that these parties should work
together towards improvement.
How to use the
It is possible to
create an approach in which solutions for the problems in all segments are
combined. Activities that concentrate on one of the segments are a start, but
not enough to create a strong base for an overall long-term solution.
Obtaining personnel and keeping them interested in the profession is only
possible if all parties are involved.
VTB as an
abbreviation and means: Dissemination of Technical education in primary
education. The expectation of this project (established in 2000; actual start
2001) is to create positive attitudes amongst children in the age of primary
education towards Technical education. In this project 130 schools for
primary education (out of some 7100) are working together with 11 colleges
for teacher education for primary education (out of some 35) and regional
Ministry of Education subsidizes the VTB project.
regional development centres will create and develop materials for all
schools for primary education in The Netherlands during 4 years. This means
that the project will end December 2004.
the starting-points is that technical education must become an integrated
part of existing subjects in primary education e.g. geography, history,
are: Energy as part of history. In biology how to build a nest-box.
important development is the attention for testing in relation to the aims of
the education. The national Institute for the development of tests (CITO) has
been asked to make tests esp. for technical education as it develops itself
starting-point is to have a far more clear profile of technical education in
the core aims for primary education. Within primary education each subject
has its own core aims, which must be achieved, at the end of a childs career
in primary education. For each year derived from the general core aims, there
are sub-aims. The Ministry of Education has stated now that science is one
of the 6 learning areas, which belong to the heart, the core of primary
result of this statement is that it includes a lot of consequences on which
has to be worked e.g. descriptions of the explanations of the core aims for
technical education, descriptions of sub-aims, tests, curriculum lines,
examples and so on; furthermore a description of the necessary schooling of
staff members (professionalisation), support form the education support
organisations, and so on, and so on.
proposals of the Ministry AXIS had the following comment: in order to have a
full connection to secondary education, the program for technical education
in primary has to be wide. This means:
wants that technical education as a subject
- arouses creative interest and
competences amongst large groups of young people,
- is making a connection to other subjects in
Dutch primary education via designing.
AXIS is really concerned about the
connection between what has been developed for primary education will be
continued at least in the first 2 years of secondary education. These first
two years are the so-called years for basic education in which youngsters
have a lot of subjects in which they learn how to cope with daily life.
Subjects are e.g.: home economics, cooking and also technical education.
The final results of the VTB project in
2004 are the following:
Technical education must be integrated
in the curriculum of the selected 110 schools for primary education and in
the curriculum of the 11 Colleges of Teacher Training for primary education.
will be measured and evaluated.
Schools and Colleges of Teacher Training
for primary education have developed networks aiming at further extension.
program results in the development of materials and methodologies for the
integration into the regular curriculum. This must be obvious when seen from
the way in which technical education has been described in terms of core
aims; the level of the technical education tests and in the way the
Inspection will inspect technical education.
at are the results so far (2001-2002):
- 10 regional projects have
been settled and are implemented;
- CITO (national organisation
for test development) has started to develop test materials;
- Networks are exchanging their
expertise and exchanging their knowledge about good and cheap materials;
- Connections with national
organisations and the Inspection have been settled.
- Strengthening the networking.
So far it is weak and thin. Designing is one action, implementing is
more difficult and getting good results asks even more action. The
commitment cannot be voluntarily.
- There is the fear that the
core aims will be described that vague that it becomes to open.
- Project managements are now
investing too much into the content, while advertising is also
important. It is too restricted now.
Curriculum Haagse Hogeschool; Teacher Training Department
of learning line technical education from the curriculum of the Department
of teacher training of Haagse Hogeschool (university of professional
restricted time to spend on technical education of the teacher training
college we try to have students to meet with the objectives of the skills
required for the starting teacher. These are described in the annex.
are tested on their basic knowledge at the 8+ level. This means that a
student have the disposal of the knowledge of technical education, which
children learn in primary education.
prepare themselves by study primary school methods and a theory book at an
Introduction technical education
concepts for technical education are presented within the subject of Man and
objectives are presented, areas of interest, technology cycles.
learn how a story and pictures can present the technology challenge.
make kinetic boxes. They learn a
technical education principle (crank-shaft/pneumatics) and to combine a
creative environment with a working product full of fantasy. Core-based
lessons according to the technical education cycle
going through a process of an example of a lesson: the eggs experiment.
to make a falling equipment (with restricted materials) in order to descend
an egg without any crack. From this example they learn the technical
education cycle: designing, making and using/repairing; a cycle to be used in
each technical education lesson.
principles of electricity and a circuit. After that they are going through
practical work from simple closed circuits to more open and applicable ones.
This practical work is at the same time a preparation for a guest teacher
lesson of the advisors of the branch of industry of Metal and Electricity.
These are pensioners form the branch that is doing these guest lessons.
they are presenting is a copy of a lesson for hundreds of schools for primary
education but at the level of higher education. It is practice work on:
electronic circuits, pulleys, solding, a walking lamp, measuring resistance
design and make cardboard chairs for fantasy persons supported by teachers
and students of the department of Industrial Designing. They concentrate on
all phases of the designing process.
teacher students are supposed to apply this knowledge during their work of making
a musical for children and making a technical product for this subject (see
TEBO (technical education for primary education)
- video Techniek in de basisschool.
objectives, technical cycle (designing, making and using), areas of interest,
- oriëntation-task Technical education in your own
of transmittance with the use of models of Lego
- explanation of the
Lesson 2: Legodacta
Introduction Learning line Legodacta
learn to know this material and how to work with it according to the method.
working with these materials they will recognize several ways of working with
it at several levels.
learn that working with beautiful Lego material is attractive for children.
This lesson is combined with the activities
of VTB (see § 8.2.)
Lesson 3: technical education with the use of cheap
learn that though sometimes more attractive materials need not to be
expensive. They can use two books: resource book technical education: Maak
t maar! (SLO) and Techniek, de eerste stap of Harry
Valkenier. They are
informed about a selection of simple and practice oriented technical education
Presentation of products
are presenting their products of technical education machines. They observe
their work and are supposed to give
the opportunity to do the final improvements.
and make a machine with which children can play and at the same time discover
technical education principles. It is supposed that there are at least two
transmittance principles in it.
activity for children to make a product with inexpensive materials, based on
have to add a written justification in which there is
theoretical part with relations of the handbook on technical education;
drawings and descriptions.
Theme: Man, Nature and Technical education
It is one
of the optional themes for 3rd graders. It last for 10 weeks. Students are
free to decide what they think most important out of the entire range of
learning areas within technical education.
work on this independent from teachers in their own project groups. At the
end they have constructed a product.
(final phase of the study)
are can choose for a final paper I the area of technical education. One of
the expert teachers will supervise.
Skills required for beginning
teachers in the area of technical education
Characteristics of the task of a beginning teacher
in technical education in primary education is focusing on contact with
technical education phenomena and products.
education is about things made by human beings as means to survive and to
make life easier en to enrich it.
is related to old and new technical education. Two aspects are of importance:
the technical education process of designing, making and using and the
diversity in technical products being a result of the process.
Technical education has a
close relationship with education in science and arts (drawing and
understandings, it is also about the application of scientific knowledge
(knowledge about matter, energy and information), as about the designing of a
Within technical education
information technology is of big importance. Children can make use of special
computer programs when they are solving problems.
The beginning teacher has his
learners focused on elementary understanding and skills related to
constructions (e.g. bridges, buildings), transportation (e.g. cars),
communication (e.g. telephone), and production processes (making of shampoo).
He has his learners
confronted with a combination of activities: he is presenting them a problem.
They design solutions on paper and start to work on it in practice in order
to solve the problem.
B The academic level of the
The beginning teacher has an overview on meaning and position of technical
education in society. He has the disposal of a relevant repertoire of
understanding of technical education and skills related to constructions,
movement and transmittance principles, functionality (use of materials and
design) and the effect of technical products.
C Subject content and subject teaching method for
The beginning teacher has the disposal of teaching methods and skills to
support children in the process of designing, making and the use of technical
products in a safe and a strong learning environment for younger and older
children. He can organise materials, tools and media within this learning
The beginning teacher can demonstrate his teaching methods and abilities in a
cross-curricular theme: the environment. In this theme the following aspects
are of importance:
to do research on technical
products (investigate why, how and of which these are made)
organising excursions to
industries in the neighbourhood (e.g. to investigate how a conveyer in a
dairy factory is working) and to examples of industrial heritage
mention and describe a
problem which can be solved with technical means (e.g. putting traffic lights
at a busy corner, see how car tyres can be recycled)
D Cohesion of the general qualifications
To teach the subject technical education
a teacher also needs general beginning skills.
To teach technical education a teacher
also needs general beginning skills. We will mention them shortly and will
give a short description. With this we offer a context in which contents and
skills will become clear and especially the relation between both.
Characteristics and development
Esp. in the phase of designing differences between children will become
clear. Te teacher is supposed to take his time for this, not only to have
children been working with a lot of concentration but also to observe the way
in which the children are managing their task. The teacher will especially
focus on the possible differences between boys and girls and between younger
and older children. Especially for younger children it is important that the
teacher will notice the motor development.
Preparation of the teaching
During technical education activities the classroom will change into a
workshop. For technical education activities a lot of organisation is
required: where are all the materials and tools, where in the classroom is
room to work and how (in groups or individually).
During the preparation the teacher will
use contents from other subjects like science education and handicrafts. He
will also use information and materials from external organisations. He will
also use information technology.
Creating and organising strong learning
Materials brought in by children will get a place in the permanent technical
education corner. A box in which machines are put in to be taken out are part
of this corner. The learning environment is becoming a workshop: the
classroom is a laboratory, print shop, garage etc. Technical education
activities need a lot of materials and tools and consequently a lot of space
and an effective use of the room.
Instructional designs and the use of the
Children must also be able to use multimedia programs.
When designing, making and using the teacher tries to have as many children
as possible working independently.
Observations will learn the way children
start a task and from that he can supervise the children. When copying
children get if necessary alternative ways of working from the teacher
Teachers are serious when children ask questions and propose ideas for
designing. The learning environment needs to be safe and challenging.
The home situation is embedded into the
learning process in which children develop an eye for positive and negative
sides of technology.
Products are assessed in a positive way in order to motivate children to do
the teacher is following INSET courses, is participating in networks and
improves his work by reflecting on these teaching methods.
He concentrates on an adapted realisation of the core objectives. He is
taking care of contacts with external experts, e.g. the Techika 10 clubs.
Information Dossier the Dutch Education system 2001;
- Frea Janssen-Vos, Early childhood
education in Primary schools; APS; Amsterdam, 1991, p.15-16
3.) Idem, p.16
Literature Technical education in primary education
(from: Praktische Didactiek voor
Natuuronderwijs, Vaan, E. de en J. Marell, Bussum 1999)
- Allen, R.E. en S.D. Allen (1996) Winnie-de-Pooh en het Oplossen van Problemen. Sirius en Siderius, Den Haag
- Bleijerveld, C. e.a. (1995) Techniek
in de Basisschool; Basisdocument Leerlijn. SLO, Enschede
- Bleijerveld, K. e.a. (I995) Een goede (na)scholing, ook voor techniek! SLO, Enschede
- Bleijerveld, K. e.a. (1995) Geen modulen maar bronnenboeken. SLO, Enschede
- Bleijerveld, K. (red.) (I997) Handboek PABO techniek; voorlopige versie. SLO, Enschede
- Both, K. (1989) Oriënt techniek. LPC-jenaplan/CPS, Hoevelaken
- Boogaert, L. (1998) Kids-paspoort techniek. Schoolsupport, Vijfhuizen
- Bouwmeester, T. en P. Hugen (I995) Techniek in het primair onderwijs, zoals het kan. SLO, Enschede
- Bouwmeester, T. (red.) (I997) Maak 't maar!. Meidenhoff Educatief, Amsterdam
- Bouwmeester, T. (red.) (1998) Handboek Nascholing techniek.
- Dinther, E. van en M. Kemps-Vermeulen (1996) Techniekwerk;
een handreiking voor het
invoeren van techniek in het basisonderwijs. Technika 10
- Doornekamp, B.G. en F.M. Stevens (1989) Techniekonderwijs in de basisschool. Universiteit Twente, Enschede
- Doornekamp, G. (red.) (1997) Zo
doe je techniek in de basisschool.
- Doomekamp, G. (1998) Techniek
en informatie- en
communicatietechnologie; primair onderwijs. SLO, Enschede
- Duyvejonck, G. (1998) School-
en klaspraktijk, aflevering 156; thematisch nummer Technologische
Opvoeding in het basisonderwijs.
Van In, Lier (B)
- Hagenaar, F. (1995) Spelen
met hout en beweging. Technika
- Hagenaar, F. (1997) De
eerste Wiegende Ketel; techniekpakket metaal voor het basisonderwijs. Technika 10, Rotterdam
- Huijs, H. (1996) Ontwerpen en probleemoplossen in techniek; basisvorming. SLO, Enschede
- Inno Techniek Oosterhout (1996) Hoezo veilig? Veilig
werken aan techniekopdrachten in het basisonderwijs en het speciaal
Techniek Primair Onderwijs, 's-Hertogenbosch
- Klerk Wolters, F. de (1988) Groep
zeven en acht van de basisschool over techniek. Technische Universiteit, Eindhoven
- Klinkhamer, S. (1997) Ontdek het
ABC... Techniek (boek + cd-rom).
- Klinkhamer, S. (1998) Ontdek
techniek... natte voeten,
droge voeten (boek + liedjes-cd).
- Laan, J. van der (1988) Kind
en Techniek. Van Loghum Slaterus,
- Leisink, J. e.a. (1997) Met
een automaat ben je slim; techniek in het primair onderwijs,
bovenbouw 11-12jaar. SLO,
- Macaulay, D. (1988) Over
de werking van de kurkentrekker en andere machines. Van Holkema & Warendorf, Houten
- Makiya, H. & M. Rogers
(1992) Design and Technology in
the Primary School; Case
Studiesfor Teachers. Routledge,
London Marell, 1. (1996) Voor de zon uit je dak; handleiding voor het onderwijs bij de
solarset van Fischertechnik. Heutink, Rijssen
- Marell, J. (1996) TacTic,
het educatieve constructiemateriaal.
- Marell, J. (1998) Verdraaid handig in beweging. Lego dacta / Heutink, Rijssen
- Marell, J. (1999) Lego
junior Techniek; Uit de startblokken.
Lego dacta, Heutink, Rijssen
- Marell, J. (1999) Vormgeven aan bouwwerken. Lego
dacta / Heutink, Rijssen
- Marell, J. e.a. (1997) Met
je toren in de wolken; techniek in het primair onderwijs, onderbouw 5-7jaar. SLO, Enschede
- Marell, J. e.a. (1997) Een
speelmachine voor jantine; techniek in het primair onderwijs, middenbouw 8-lojaar. SLO, Enschede
- Natuur aan de basis (1992) Themanummer Techniek, nummer 3. Bosch
& Keuning, Baarn
- Natuur aan de basis (1995) Themanummer Huis-tuin-en-keuken-techniek,
nummer 3. Bosch & Keuning, Baam
- Peijen, J. (1998) Lessuggesties
Techniek lezen, kijken, doen.
Prov. Bibl. Centr. Nrd.-Brabant, Tilburg
- Ploegmakers, B. e.a. (1994) Techniek
in de basisvorming. Coutinho,
- Ploegmakers, B. e.a. (1996)
Techniek in het
basisonderwijs; mogelijkheden voor
aansluiting in de praktijk; techniek 4-12 en 12-15jaar. SLO, Enschede
- Projectgroep WO-jenaplan o.I.v. T. Bouwmeester (1995) Wereldoriëntatie in
het jenaplanondenvijs; mappen ervaringsgebieden 'Maken en gebruiken in 'Techniek'. SLO, Enschede
- Raat, J. en M.E. Siegers (1990)
Techniek op de
basisschool. Bastec, Leeuwarden
- Raat, J. e.a. (1993) Techniek
als schoolvak; Techniekonderwijs in België, Denemarken, Duitsland, Engeland en
Frankrijk. Stichting Technon,
- Revet, J. (1997) Basisboek
Steunpunt Technika 10, Utrecht
- Richards, R. (1990) An Early Start to technology. Simon &
- Rovers, S. (1998) Boekje open; deel 3 over Techniek
in Kinderboeken. De Inktvis,
- Stuurgroep Techniek Primair Onderwijs (1998) Vademecum Techniek 1998. Infodesk Techniek Primair Onderwijs,
- Talens, G. (1992) 'Na-apen en afkijken, zwemvliezen, vleugels
en flaporen'. In: Natuur aan de basis, nummer 4.
Bosch & Keuning, Baarn
- Vinke, D. e.a. (1997) Techniek
in de Pabo's. Stuurgroep
Techniek Primair Onderwijs, Den Bosch
- Watts, M. (1991) The Science of Problem-solving.
Cassell Education Ltd., London
- Zagers, M. e.a. (1998) Musical
Een wereld vol techniek. Pabo Groenewoud, Nijmegen